Schönberg, Arnold (1874 – 1951)
Arnold Schönberg was born in Vienna ,Austria in 1874, Schoenberg spent his early career in Berlin, until the rise to power of Hitler made it necessary to leave Germany and find safety in America, where he died in 1951.
He was an outstanding Austrian composer, Arnold Schoenberg, has exercised very considerable influence over the course of music in the 20th century particularly through his development and promulgation of theories of composition in which he revolutionized modern music by abandoning tonality and developing a twelve-tone, serial technique of composition Schoenberg’s earlier compositions are post-romantic in character, followed by a period in which he implemented his theories of atonality, music without a key or tonal centre.
A mong Schoenberg’s most important works for orchestra are a violin concerto, a symphonic poem based on Maurice Maeterlinck’s medieval drama Pelleas und Melisande and Five Orchestral Pieces. Schoenberg’s chamber music includes four string quartets, a string trio, suite for 7 instruments and a woodwind quintet.
In addition, Schoenberg wrote several piano pieces, composed an unfinished opera, Moses und Aron, and a number of choral and vocal works, among which the most well-known are Gurrelieder, Gurrelieder , is a work of Wagnerian proportions and mood, for solo voices, large chorus and orchestra. Other, later vocal music includes A Survivor from Warsaw, written in 1947, for narrator, male voices and orchestra. Solo songs range from the 1909 settings of Stefan George in Das Buch der hängenden Gärten (The Book of the Hanging Garden) to the cabaret songs he wrote for the Berlin Überbrettl in his earlier years. The Pierrot lunaire, a study of madness, based on German translations of seven poems by Albert Giraud and using Sprechgesang, words half spoken, half sung, was completed in 1912
He was a Survivor from the Warsaw Getto and The Pierrot Lunaire.